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9/05/2019

Do I need orthotics? What kind?

Here’s why parents need to know about e-cigarettes. First, many more teens are using them. In 2017, 3% of middle school students and 12% of high school students reported using them, and while that may not sound like a lot, since 2011 use has gone up about 500% in middle school and 800% among high school students. And, e-cigarettes can be dangerous.
How e-cigarettes work

E-cigarettes are basically delivery devices for nicotine, the addictive chemical in tobacco. The hope of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is that they might possibly decrease smoking — which would be great, as smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. It’s the smoke itself that causes the vast majority of the health risk, so the idea was that perhaps if you gave people a way to inhale nicotine that didn’t involve burning tobacco, you might get them away from tobacco, especially if you were able to gradually decrease the amount of nicotine they inhale.

The problem is that not only did it turn out that these devices don’t really help people quit, they are being marketed to youth, and youth are buying them.
Why e-cigarettes are especially dangerous for young people

This is where the danger comes in. E-cigarettes are dangerous for youth in at least three ways:

    Nicotine can affect developing brains, putting young users at higher risk of addiction and mental health problems.
    Inhaling the vapor itself can cause breathing problems.
    E-cigarette use makes it more likely that youth will start smoking tobacco.

This is a big enough concern that the FDA is launching an effort to curb e-cigarette use in youth. They have targeted the major manufacturers (JUUL, Vuse, blu E-Cig, MarkTen, Logic) and are not only examining their marketing practices, but asking them to come up with “robust” plans to curb youth use of their products. They are also looking at other ways to curb use, including education and regulation. Many states have laws regulating the sale of e-cigarettes to youth, and others are considering them.
Here’s what parents need to do

    Get educated. Learn about e-cigarettes and their health risks.
    Talk to your kids about them. Ask about what they know, ask if they have tried them, ask if their friends have tried them. Ask if they see others using them at school. Make sure they understand the dangers.
    Advocate! Talk to your elected officials about better laws to protect our children. Talk to your school and community about education and outreach.
Localized prostate cancer that is diagnosed before it has a chance to spread typically responds well to surgery or radiation. But when a tumor metastasizes and sends malignant cells elsewhere in the body, the prognosis worsens. Better treatments for men with metastatic prostate cancer are urgently needed. In 2018, scientists advanced toward that goal by sequencing the entire metastatic cancer genome.

The newly revealed genomic landscape includes not just the active genes that make proteins, but also the vast stretches of DNA in between them that can also be functionally significant. Most of the genomic alterations were structural, meaning that DNA letters in the cells were mixed up, duplicated, or lost. A major finding was that the androgen receptor, which is a target for hormonal medications used when cancer returns after initial treatment, was often genetically amplified. That could explain why patients often become stubbornly resistant to hormonal therapies: if the androgen receptor is hyperactive, then the treatments can’t fully block its activity.

The research revealed many other sorts of alterations as well. For instance, DNA-repair genes such as BRCA2 and MMR were often defective. Cells rely on these genes to fix the genetic damage that afflicts them routinely every day, but with their functional loss, cancerous changes can follow. Cancer-driving oncogenes such as MYC were common, as were “tumor-suppressor” genes such as TP53 and CDK12, which ordinarily work to keep cancer at bay.

Metastatic prostate cancer differs from one man to another, and likewise, the frequency of these alterations varied among the more than 100 men who provided samples for analysis. By exploring the data, scientists can now develop new hypotheses for testing, and refine personalized treatment strategies to help men with this life-threatening disease. Many people come to my office complaining of foot pain from conditions such as bunions, hammertoes, a pinched nerve (neuroma), or heel pain (plantar fasciitis). I perform a thorough evaluation and examination, and together we review the origin, mechanics, and treatment plan for the specific problem or issue. The patient usually asks if they need an orthotic and, if so, which type would be best.

I recommend a foot orthotic if muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, or bones are not in an optimal functional position and are causing pain, discomfort, and fatigue. Foot orthotics can be made from different materials, and may be rigid, semirigid, semiflexible, or accommodative, depending on your diagnosis and specific needs.
Different types of orthotics

Most of my discussions center around three types of foot orthotics: over-the-counter/off-the-shelf orthotics; “kiosk-generated” orthotics; and professional custom orthotics. Over-the-counter (OTC) or off-the-shelf orthotics are widely available and can be chosen based on shoe size and problem (such as Achilles tendinitis or arch pain). Kiosk orthotics are based on a scan of your feet. A particular size or style of orthotics is recommended for you based on your foot scan and the type of foot problem you are experiencing. They may help with heel pain, lower back pain, general foot discomfort, or for a specific sport.

For custom prescription orthotics, a health professional performs a thorough health history, including an assessment of your height, weight, level of activity, and any medical conditions. A diagnosis and determination of the best materials and level of rigidity/flexibility of the orthotics is made, followed by an impression mold of your feet. This mold is then used to create an orthotic specifically for you. The difference between OTC/kiosk and custom orthotics may be likened to the difference between over-the-counter and prescription reading glasses.
Which type of orthotic is right for you?

A person of average weight, height, and foot type, and with a generic problem such as heel pain, usually does well with an over-the-counter or kiosk orthotic. They are less expensive, and usually decrease pain and discomfort. However, you may have to replace them more often. Someone with a specific need, or a problem such as a severely flat foot, may benefit from custom prescription orthotics. While more expensive and not usually covered by insurance, they generally last longer than the OTC/kiosk type.

Before investing in orthotics, I recommend spending your hard-earned money on quality, properly fitted shoes specific for your work or athletic activities. You may be surprised to learn that many people have not had their feet professionally measured at a shoe store in years. As we age, our foot length and width changes. And sizing may not be consistent between brands; the same size 9-1/2 narrow shoe may differ significantly from one manufacturer to another.

If your pain or discomfort does not improve with new shoes, try over-the-counter or kiosk orthotics for a period of time. If you see improvement, fine. If not, see a health care professional for an evaluation for custom prescription orthotics.

In my experience, certain groups of people benefit from an examination performed by a health care professional, and a prescription for custom orthotics. These include people with diabetes who have loss of feeling in their feet, people with poor circulation, and people with severe foot deformities caused by arthritis. In fact, Medicare has a program that covers 80% of the cost of diabetic shoes and orthotics, because studies have shown that they decrease the chance of developing an open sore that can lead to amputation.

In summary, if you feel you know what is causing your foot pain, you don’t fall into any of the groups that benefit from professional custom orthotics, and you already wear a properly fitted pair of shoes, go ahead and try the OTC or kiosk orthotics. For most people, these will provide relief. After taking these steps, if you notice no improvement in your condition, then seek out the advice of a health care professional.

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